Passive movements used to increase mobility of joints
and decrease pain performed at a speed in which it is possible for patient to prevent the movement may be gentle-smooth or stretching-staccato.
It is either:
Passive physiological intervertebral movements (PPIVM): PPIVM is used as an assessment to identify the location, nature, severity and irritability of vertebral symptoms, joint hypermobility or hypomobility. It tests the movement available at a specific spinal level through the application of a passive physiological movement. As a treatment used to mobilize stiffness and decrease pain. Passive accessory intervertebral movements (PAIVM): The purpose of PAIVM is to assess the amount and quality of movement at various intervertebral levels, and to treat pain and stiffness. the aim is to assess the end feel of movement, quality of resistance, behaviour of pain throughout the range of movement, and observe any muscle spasm. Types of Passive Accessory Movements: CPA - Central Posterior Anterior
Used for pain evenly distributed on both sides when pain/ protective spasm is present in same direction UPA - Unilateral Posterior Anterior
Used for unilateral pain when pain is reproduced in AP direction. CAP - Central Anterior Posterior
Used for spondylolisthesis or intradiscal disorder UAP - Unilateral Anterior Posterior
Used mostly in cervical region Rotation (General or Localized)
For unilateral pain whether referred or not
Used for unilateral distribution. Push towards the painful side.
gentle for acute localized pain.
For Pain Relief (Irritable): Grade I: small amplitude at the beginning of the range Grade II: large amplitude not reaching the end of range For Stiffness (Non-irritable): Grade III: large amplitude up to the limit Grade IV: small amplitude into the limit Grade V: (manipulation) low amplitude, high velocity, thrust.